It was during the early 1960s, when the applications using satellites were still in experimental stages. When live transmission of Tokyo Olympic Games across the Pacific by the American Satellite “SYNCOM3” was done, a thought of utmost importance came in Dr. Vikram Sarabhai’s(the founding father of Indian Space Programme), which lead to the establishment of INCOSPAR (Indian National Committee for Space Research) in 1962 under the leadership of Dr. Sarabhai and Dr. Ramanathan.

Dr. Vikram Sarabhai understood the role and importance of space science and technology in a Nation’s development. INCOSPAR set up the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station(TERLS) in Thiruvananthapuram for Research.

After superseding INCOSPAR in 1967, ISRO(Indian Space Research Organisation ) embarked on its mission to provide Nation space based services. In 1967,the first Experimental Satellite Communication Earth Station(ESCES) located in Ahmedabad was operationalised.

To establish that a satellite system can contribute to national development, ISRO was clear that it need not wait for its own satellites to begin application development thus started to use foreign satellites in initial stages. But before trying full- fledged satellite system , some experiments to provide the efficacy of television medium for national development was necessary. Thus, a TV program on agricultural information ‘Krishi Darshan’ was started, which received good response. After that SITE(Satellite Instructional Television Experiment) hailed as “the largest sociological experiment in the world” during 1975-76. This experiment benefited around 200000 people covering 2400 villages of six states and transmitted development oriented programmes using the American Technology Satellite(ATS-6). This helped 50,000 science teachers training in one year.

SITE was followed by Satellite Telecommunication Experiment Project(STEP), a joint project of ISRO and Post and Telegraphs Department, which focused on telecommunication experiments. SITE was also followed by Kheda Communication Project(KCP) for need based and local specific programme transmission in the Kheda District of Gujarat state. KCP was awarded UNESCO-IPDC (International Programme for the Development of Communication) award in 1984.

After that ISRO never stopped amusing the World and Nation through various missions. In the process of bringing space and space technology to the ground level, it has become one of the six largest space agencies in world , maintaining one of the largest fleet of communication satellites (INSAT- Indian National Satellite) and remote sensing (IRS- Indian Remote Sensing) satellites. These satellite systems provide the response to the ever growing demand of communication and earth observation respectively.

ISRO develops and delivers application satellite products and tools to the Nation featuring Broadcasts, Communication purpose, weather forecasting, disaster managements, Geographic Information Systems, Navigation satellites being some of them.

But for self reliance in terms of these applications, it was of utmost importance to develop cost efficient and reliable launch systems. Giving birth to Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle(PSLV) which became one of the famous carrier for satellites of various countries due to cost efficiency and reliability. The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) was developed for the heavier and more demanding Geosynchronous communication Satellites.


Spacecraft is a type of artificial satellites used for various purpose like communication, observation, space colonization etc.

COMMUNICATION SATELLITES: INSAT-3A, 3C, 4A, 4B, 4CR and GSAT-6,7,8,9,10,12,14,15,16 and 18.

EARTH OBSERVATIONAL SATELLITES : Currently , thirteen Operational satellites are in Sun-synchronous orbit- RESOURCESAT-1, 2,2A CARTOSAT-1, 2, 2A,  2B, RISAT-1 and 2, OCEANSAT-2, Megha-Tropiques, SARAL and SCATSAT-1, and four in Geostationary orbit- INSAT-3D, Kalpana & INSAT 3A, INSAT -3DR.

SCIENTIFIC SPACECRAFT : AstroSat, Mars Orbiter Mission(MOM), Chandrayaan 1, Chandrayaan 2


EXPERIMENTAL SATELLITES : INS-1C, INS-1B, INS-1A, YOUTHSAT, APPLE, Rohini Satellite RS-1, Rohoni Technology Payload, Aryabhatta.

SMALL SATELLITES : Indian Mini Satellite-1(IMS-1) and Indian Mini Satellite -2 (IMS-2) Bus


  1. Sounding Rockets
  2. SLV
  3. ASLV
  4. PSLV
  5. GSLV
  7. RLV-TD
  8. Scramjet Engine-TD

MISSIONS : ISRO conducted 109 spacecraft missions, 77 launch missions, 10 Satellite missions , 2 re-entry missions and 319 Foreign Satellite missions.

The Latest missions are launch of GSAT-30, PSLV-C48/RISAT-2BR1, PSLV-C47/CARTOSAT-3 Mission

Trending : Mars Orbiter Mission(MOM)

With a vision to harness space technology for National Development, while pursuing space research and planetary exploration , ISRO has also contributed to science and space education in the country.

ISRO is moving forward with the development of heavy lift launchers, human spaceflight projects, reusable launch vehicles, semi-cryogenic engines, single and two stage to orbit vehicles, etc to keep itself ready for the future.